Silicoglycidol is presented as an effective solution against mycotoxicosis
Silicoglycidol is presented as an effective solution against mycotoxicosis
Effects of mycotoxins on animal production worldwide
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi that contaminate feed and raw materials used in animal feed causing disorders in different organs and decreasing animal productivity.
Mycotoxins with the highestprevalence during 2020 and during the first quarter of 2021, were fumonisin,trichothecenes (DON) and zearalenone. These fungi metabolites affect both the gut health and reproductive parameters of animals, decreasing their productive performance.
The molecule Silicoglycidol, developed and patented by Biovet S.A., is the world’s first mycotoxin binder molecule, capable of joining mycotoxins of all chemical groups with effects on animal production. This patented molecule has proven its effectiveness in more than 50 countries for more than 35 years.
Fumonisin, trichotecenes and zeralenone, most prevalent mycotoxins in 2020 and 021
Studies conducted during the last part of 2020, as well as predictions for the first quarter of 2021, show an increase in the prevalence of fumonisins in feed, placing itself as the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide with a prevalence up to 93%.
The second most prevalent mycotoxin in this area will be trichothecenes (DON), whose prevalence was around 79% in USA and 87% in China in the last quarter of 2020. This mycotoxin is especially important because of the losses it causes in pigs.
A high noteworthy mycotoxin due to the reproductive problems it causes in pigs is zeralenone whose prevalence worldwide ranged from 31-81% in the last quarter of 2020.
These high percentages of contamination mean that it is common for feed to be contaminated by more than one mycotoxin simultaneously. Mycotoxins have a synergistic effect among them, increasing their harmful effects on animals. Therefore, it is essential to prevent the absorption of all mycotoxins, even if they are at low concentrations.
Effects of mycotoxins on animal production
3.1 Effects of fumonisins
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, as well as by the fungus Aspergillus niger. These mycotoxins belong to the aminoalcohol group, classified by their chemical structure.
Subtype B1, is the predominant subtype and is characterized by causing nervous and respiratory signs. In pigs, this mycotoxin usually appears subclinically, provoking delayed growth of animals and reducing the final weight of pigs by up to 3%. In contaminations greater than 1000 ppb, fumonisins causes outbreaks of pulmonary edema in pigs, with a mortality between 10% and 40%.
In poultry, fumonisin mycotoxicosis is related to decreased bird growth, lower average daily gain and increased mortality.
3.2 Effects of Trichothecenes
Trichothecenes are mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi of the genus Fusarium, which have a great impact on both poultry and swine, due to their direct effect on feed intake and gut health. Mycotoxin T-2 and deoxynivalenol, also known as vomitoxin, are the most important trichothecenes in animal production.
Figure 1. and 2. Chemical structure of deoxynivalenol and mycotoxin T-2
Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin is the mycotoxin with the greatest impact on productivity throughout Eastern Europe and Russia. This mycotoxin is especially important in pigs, where doses of 0.3-1 ppm reduce the feed intake and growth of these animals. In poultry doses between 0.7-16 ppm of DON reduce growth as well as reduce the egg production in laying hens.
The DON has a cytotoxic effect, causing the necrosis of the cells it contacts with, through its sesquiterpene group. At the same time, it affects tight junctions between the enterocytes, disturbing intestinal permeability and favoring the entrance of other microorganisms into the animal.
For pigs, feed intake and feed conversion rate are the most affected parameters, with a reduction of between 1% and 10% depending on the contamination level.
Tabla 1.Efecto de las micotoxinas DON, fumonisinas y zearalenona sobre la producción avícola y porcina.
3.3 Effects of Zearalenone
Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin, of the lactonic group, produced by species of the genus Fusarium, especially relevant in the case of pigs, where it causes reproductive failures.
Birds are more resistant to this mycotoxin, because circulating estrogen levels in blood are much higher than pigs.
Externally the most frequently observed symptom in mycotoxicosis produced by zearalenone is vulvitis, especially in young bristles, as well as an increase in the number of repetitions and prolongation of the anestrus. Internally, an increase in the size of the uterus is observed.
The reproductive failures caused by zearalenone have a marked impact on the profitability of swine production.
Illustration 3. Vulvitis in sow fed with feed contaminated with zearalenone.
Silicoglycidol the effective solution against mycotoxins
To prevent mycotoxins from causing these alterations in animals, negatively affecting productivity, it is necessary to include a mycotoxin binder effective against all of them and that has been extensively tested under different field conditions.
From Biovet S.A. we have been working for more than thirty years to prevent the effects of mycotoxins on animal productivity. We developed and patented the world’s first mycotoxin binding molecule (1988), the Silicoglycidol.
This molecule has a unique chemical optimized for binding mycotoxins. It has a wide spectrum of action, being effective against all mycotoxins. Its effectiveness has been proved through in vitro trials, as well as, in commercial trials, at a dose of only 0.5 kg/t.
In addition, the molecule remains bound to the mycotoxins throughout the animal’s digestive tract, ensuring its excretion in the feces. This is because it forms hydrogen bonds, very stable, with mycotoxins that prevent their separation despite modifications of the physicochemical conditions that occur throughout the digestive tract.
At the same time, the specificity of this molecule has been proven, so that it does not capture other nutrients present in the diet, such as vitamins or amino acids.
Illustration 4. Minimum % adsorption per mycotoxin. Results obtained from in vitro trials carried out by the R&D department of Biovet S.A. and by Spanish universities.
Broad spectrum of action in all mycotoxin groups with Silicoglycidol
Silicoglycidol ensures that the percentage of binding is maintained throughout the digestive tract, with a percentage greater than 84,5% in the case of DON, 80% in the case of fumonisin B1 and 74.2% in the case of zearalenone, ensuring the protection of animals.
From Biovet S.A., we have carried out field trials to check the effectiveness of Silicoglycidol under commercial conditions. A trial was performed on 63 kg pigs, which were fed feed contaminated with DON (4 ppm) and Zearalenone (1 ppm). This trial showed that Silicoglycidol improves average daily gain (ADG) by 22.61% while reducing the feed conversion rate (FCR) by 13.28%, compared to a competitive binder.
Illustration 5. Productive results obtained in pigs fed with feed contaminated with DON (4 ppm) and Zea (1 ppm).
At the same time, it has been observed that in breeding sows, fed with feed contaminated with Zearalenone (1 ppm), the use of Silicoglycidol allows to reduce the incidence of vulvitis by 23%.
Mycotoxicosis prevention with Silicoglycidol
Fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone were the most prevalent mycotoxins worldwide during the last part of 2020 and this prevalence is expected to continue during the first quarter of 2021.
These mycotoxins have a marked impact on production, both in poultry and swine, as they affect feed intake, reduce the growth rate of up to 21%, increase the feed conversion rate by 1-10% and generate serious reproductive problems in pigs.
Silicoglycidol is an effective tool for the control of these mycotoxins, with a biding percentage of 84.5% in the case of DON, 80% for fumonisin B1 and 74.2% for zearalenone, protection. This increased protection is reflected in higher productivity, its use in pigs allows to improve ADG by 22.61% and reduce the FCR by 13.28%.
Silicoglycidol is marketed in biovet S.A.’s mycotoxin binder line Alquerfeed, which includes products such as Alquerfeed Antitox(100% Silicoglycidol-based).
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